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Gen III+ reactor designs are an evolutionary development of Gen III reactors, offering improvements in safety over Gen III reactor designs. The Generation IV Nuclear Reactors Forum develops Generation IV technology and addresses not only the construction and operation of the next generation of nuclear power reactors, but also consider fuel efficiency, reducing waste production, and meeting stringent standards of … The Next Generation of Reactors As the need for clean energy grows globally, nuclear science and technology provides reliable, local energy options that have near zero emissions. Table \(\PageIndex{2}\) includes some of the designs for generation III and III+ reactors. Generation I reactors 1950-1970: First generation of reactors (50 - 500 MWe) The first generation reactors were in the 1950s and 1960s the precursors of today big commercial reactors producing electricity, especially in the U.S., the former Soviet Union, France and the United Kingdom. Regardless of the topic, subject or … 0000005289 00000 n THE KEY REACTOR FACTORS Nuclear reactor designs are usually categorized by “generation”; that is, Gen- eration I, II, III, III+, and IV. The key attributes characterizing the develop- ment and deployment of nuclear power reactors illuminate the essential dif- ferences between the various generations of reactors. In particular France had to ensure energy independence within a volatile global political context. 0000000656 00000 n 0000006031 00000 n In 1951, the EBR-1 prototype in the U.S. was producing just enough electricity to lit four light bulbs. 166 18 The concept of Generation IV re… In particular, four are designated for … The 1950-1970 period was characterized by an explosion of concepts. Already in the 50's and 60's,nuclear fuel supply and management of the fuel cycle were perceived as major concerns for a sustainable development. startxref New designs are coming forward, both large and small. k֎4$;���1H�--�IKq%:�q�1��M\B#:�. 0000016568 00000 n This period also saw the first prototypes of fast breeder sodium-cooled reactors : Enrico Fermi in 1963 (USA), Rhapsody in 1967 (France), BOR-60 in 1968 (Soviet Union), and later on that of Joyo in 1978 (Japan). 0000016605 00000 n 0000002065 00000 n The concept of Generation IV nuclear reactors was developed by the Generation IV International Forum, originally consisting of 9 countries. The deployment of civilian nuclear power took off after the 1974 oil crisis.. (“Fast” refers to a portion of the neutron spectrum.) The generation 4 forum chose six design for the last and most advanced generation of nuclear reactors and plants. The first generation reactors were in the 1950s and 1960s the precursors of today big commercial reactors producing electricity, especially in the U.S., the former Soviet Union, France and the United Kingdom. The powers of these precursors seem modest compared with those of their faraway successors of today. 0000003635 00000 n • R&D efforts are in the material, heat exchangers, power conversion unit and fuel. In the EU there remained only two UK MAGNOX of the eleven original, that were shut down in 2010. Reactor designs have evolved from the first generation of reactors cited above to the generation II systems that included the PWR, BWR, and Magnox reactors of the 1970s and 1980s (Figure \(\PageIndex{11}\)). h�b```b``�b`e``4f`@ �GT�L*����x=P?S c&�O������ky_q�YzT���:��5�E%{�mzx��'�f�����E,���g �>��l�lnl{�=�hQ\�!u�hm��֭g�����(�bQ�9�E#��c3��E��B�dT�&� pj�(��X�m��%�x(����Q�2�0��"`e�i����)�&i`ӑ4��iC��>F���I�]%�U�I+&�2���t�écN`;W��E�@�3 N�|�s��F7�����Q��+¯s��Σ`3�����j�wJ���9*#��U�`��_���@]��,D��w8-*�9΢U�&�td�v�8 �x�G�nk�� The Office of Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) sponsors research, development and deployment (RD&D) activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. 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